Maternal quality and differences in milk production and composition for male and female Iberian red deer calves Cervus elaphus hispanicus Behav. However, these studies reported several limitations and were conducted in different contexts and with very different sampling and analytical methods, as summarized in Table 2which likely explain the disparity in findings. However, the dynamic regulation of HM composition is also impacted by maternal, environmental, and infant factors. Advances in nutrition of the newborn infant. Taken together, these results suggest that mothers with fewer somatic resources, even in captivity, may be "programming" through cortisol signaling, behaviorally cautious offspring that prioritize growth. What about boy and girl twins?
More interesting, cows often lactate while pregnant — and those that bore a second daughter in a row produced almost 1, more pounds of milk over nearly two years than those that produced only sons, Hinde calculated.
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However, evidence for a sex-specificity in human milk composition is limited and conflicting, with studies documenting higher milk energy content for either male or female infants. Lower parity mothers produced milk with higher cortisol concentrations. Sample collected during day time. Importantly, there is emerging research demonstrating a sex-specific differential effect of animal milk bioactives on offspring outcomes. However, the label for ella ulipristal acetate states that nursing mothers should not use ella, because it is unknown whether there could be risk to the child.